Protect Passwords Properly

Do’s

  1. Use long complex passwords.
  2. Generate and use random passwords yourself.
  3. Keep your passwords in an isolated safe file. Write if you want. Even better is to spend a few bucks to have a dedicated drive, USB etc.
  4. Use limited login attempts at all the allowed institutions. It basically means after 3 or 2 or 4 (whatever the set number is) unsuccessful log in attempts, your account will be automatically disabled and you will have to go either personally or call to prove your ID and then get your account reinstated. It seems annoying in the beginning but it is a great tool to protect your ID in the long run.
  5. Answer security questions in a non traditional manner. Example; Name of the first dog. Traditional answer: whisky. Non traditional answer: Ihadnodog.
  6. Always keep the current back up out of your computer such as in a USB drive.
  7. Many experts suggest to use copy+paste rather than typing in the web forms, so follow it when you are logging in.
  8. Have a real complex master password for any file that you might be using to store and protect your sensitive information such as passwords, security questions etc.
  9. Often change your passwords. Update your record if you are managing it.
  10. Always have a working anti-virus program installed. Run the program every few days in manual mode.
  11. Delete the accounts you no longer need.

Don’ts

  1. Don’t use any online system to save and protect your data. It might be chrome or internet explorer provoking you to ‘remember’ your login information. It might be a service provider tool as Norton protection. I personally call it a third party dependency and it can restrict, corrupt or disintegrate any time. Your passwords and other information is lost without any back up in this case and worst case now all of it can be available to someone else as well..
  2. Never use same password for more than one log-in portfolio..
  3. Do not use easily guessable passwords such as: abc123, 123ABC, 0123456789, XYZ etc. Cyber crime computers attack through the internet and try thousands of password combinations in a minute. They can easily guess the easy passwords and log into your account. The damage can take a-lot to repair in this case!.
  4. Do not use a computer to generate random passwords.
  5. Do not give access to unknown apps through social media.
  6. Avoid using public computers in libraries, schools, restaurants, hotels etc. If you do have to use it, un-check the “remember me” option before you log-in and clear up everything after use such as cookies, history etc. Make sure you are allowed to clear it and you are not violating any public institution policy.

Save Money With Cheap Computers

For the average computer user you really wont need anything more that a basic computer package. You see most people use there PC to do Internet, email, word processing, and a few other basic tasks. Running these sorts of applications don’t require much computer power.

Now of days just about any new machine that you can buy will handle those sorts of tasks with ease. Even a machine for $500 or less will get the job done. Many of these sub $500 dollar PC’s even come with 1 year warranties. You cant go wrong with a deal like that!

I know many of you are probably thinking; “What if you do more then just those basic tasks?”

You should still be able to get a very affordable computer. Expect to pay up to a thousand if you would like to take on some digital pictures and video. This type of work will require bigger hard drives, more CPU power, and gobs of memory. You should be able to get a machine that can handle these tasks for $1000 and maybe even less.

Here are some specs of you should be able to get in a cheap computer system:

2GHz CPU or faster
256-512 of DDR RAM
60GB hard drive
17′ CRT Monitor
CD RW (CD burner)

Any machine that resembles the specs that you see here will get the job done for most computer users. You will need to decide what you want to do with your computer and then decide just how much computer power you will really need.

AngularJS Techniques

AngularJS is a Javascript MVC framework created by Google to build properly architectured and maintenable web applications.

AngularJS takes another approach. It attempts to minimize the impedance mismatch between document centric HTML and what an application needs by creating new HTML constructs. AngularJS teaches the browser new syntax through a construct we call directives. Examples include:

Data binding, as in {{}}.
DOM control structures for repeating, showing and hiding DOM fragments.
Support for forms and form validation.
Attaching new behavior to DOM elements, such as DOM event handling.
Grouping of HTML into reusable components.

AngularJS is a MVC framework that defines numerous concepts to properly organize our web application. Our application is defined with modules that can depend from one to the others. It enhances HTML by attaching directives to your pages with new attributes or tags and expressions in order to define very powerful templates directly in your HTML. It also encapsulates the behavior of your application in controllers which are instanciated thanks to dependency injection. Thanks to the use of dependency injection, AngularJS helps you structure and test your Javascript code very easily. Finally, utility code can easily be factorized into services that can be injected in your controllers. Now let’s have a closer look at all those features.

Feature 1: Two Way Data-Binding

Think of your model as the single-source-of-truth for your application. Your model is where you go to to read or update anything in your application.

Data-binding is probably the coolest and most useful feature in AngularJS. It will save you from writing a considerable amount of boilerplate code. A typical web application may contain up to 80% of its code base, dedicated to traversing, manipulating, and listening to the DOM. Data-binding makes this code disappear, so we can focus on our application.

Think of your model as the single-source-of-truth for your application. Your model is where you go to to read or update anything in your application. The data-binding directives provide a projection of your model to the application view. This projection is seamless, and occurs without any effort from you.

Traditionally, when the model changes, the developer is responsible for manually manipulating the DOM elements and attributes to reflect these changes. This is a two-way street. In one direction, the model changes drive change in DOM elements. In the other, DOM element changes necessitate changes in the model. This is further complicated by user interaction, since the developer is then responsible for interpreting the interactions, merging them into a model, and updating the view. This is a very manual and cumbersome process, which becomes difficult to control, as an application grows in size and complexity.

There must be a better way! AngularJS’ two-way data-binding handles the synchronization between the DOM and the model, and vice versa.

Here is a simple example, which demonstrates how to bind an input value to an

element.

Name:

Enter a name here

Hello, {{yourName}}!

This is extremely simple to set up, and almost magical…

Feature 2: Templates

It’s important to realize that at no point does AngularJS manipulate the template as strings. It’s all the browser DOM.

In AngularJS, a template is just plain-old-HTML. The HTML vocabulary is extended, to contain instructions on how the model should be projected into the view.

The HTML templates are parsed by the browser into the DOM. The DOM then becomes the input to the AngularJS compiler. AngularJS traverses the DOM template for rendering instructions, which are called directives. Collectively, the directives are responsible for setting up the data-binding for your application view.

It is important to realize that at no point does AngularJS manipulate the template as strings. The input to AngularJS is browser DOM and not an HTML string. The data-bindings are DOM transformations, not string concatenations or inner HTML changes. Using the DOM as the input, rather than strings, is the biggest differentiation AngularJS has from its sibling frameworks. Using the DOM is what allows you to extend the directive vocabulary and build your own directives, or even abstract them into reusable components!

One of the greatest advantages to this approach is that it creates a tight workflow between designers and developers. Designers can mark up their HTML as they normally would, and then developers take the baton and hook in functionality, via bindings with very little effort.

Here is an example where I am using the ng-repeat directive to loop over the images array and populate what is essentially an img template.

function AlbumCtrl($scope) {
scope.images = [
{“thumbnail”:”img/image_01.png”, “description”:”Image 01 description”},
{“thumbnail”:”img/image_02.png”, “description”:”Image 02 description”},
{“thumbnail”:”img/image_03.png”, “description”:”Image 03 description”},
{“thumbnail”:”img/image_04.png”, “description”:”Image 04 description”},
{“thumbnail”:”img/image_05.png”, “description”:”Image 05 description”}
];
}

{{image.description}}

It is also worth mentioning, as a side note, that AngularJS does not force you to learn a new syntax or extract your templates from your application.

Feature 3: MVC

AngularJS incorporates the basic principles behind the original MVC software design pattern into how it builds client-side web applications.

The MVC or Model-View-Controller pattern means a lot of different things to different people. AngularJS does not implement MVC in the traditional sense, but rather something closer to MVVM (Model-View-ViewModel).

The Model

The model is simply the data in the application. The model is just plain old JavaScript objects. There is no need to inherit from framework classes, wrap it in proxy objects, or use special getter/setter methods to access it. The fact that we are dealing with vanilla JavaScript is a really nice feature, which cuts down on the application boilerplate.

The ViewModel
A viewmodel is an object that provides specific data and methods to maintain specific views.

The viewmodel is the $scope object that lives within the AngularJS application. $scope is just a simple JavaScript object with a small API designed to detect and broadcast changes to its state.

The Controller
The controller is responsible for setting initial state and augmenting $scope with methods to control behavior. It is worth noting that the controller does not store state and does not interact with remote services.

The View
The view is the HTML that exists after AngularJS has parsed and compiled the HTML to include rendered markup and bindings.

This division creates a solid foundation to architect your application. The $scope has a reference to the data, the controller defines behavior, and the view handles the layout and handing off interaction to the controller to respond accordingly.

Feature 4: Dependency Injection

AngularJS has a built-in dependency injection subsystem that helps the developer by making the application easier to develop, understand, and test.

Dependency Injection (DI) allows you to ask for your dependencies, rather than having to go look for them or make them yourself. Think of it as a way of saying “Hey I need X’, and the DI is responsible for creating and providing it for you.

To gain access to core AngularJS services, it is simply a matter of adding that service as a parameter; AngularJS will detect that you need that service and provide an instance for you.

function EditCtrl($scope, $location, $routeParams) {
// Something clever here…
}
You are also able to define your own custom services and make those available for injection as well.

angular.
module(‘MyServiceModule’, []).
factory(‘notify’, [‘$window’, function (win) {
return function (msg) {
win.alert(msg);
};
}]);

function myController(scope, notifyService) {
scope.callNotify = function (msg) {
notifyService(msg);
};
}

myController.$inject = [‘$scope’, ‘notify’];

Feature 5: Directives

Directives are my personal favorite feature of AngularJS. Have you ever wished that your browser would do new tricks for you? Well, now it can! This is one of my favorite parts of AngularJS. It is also probably the most challenging aspect of AngularJS.

Directives can be used to create custom HTML tags that serve as new, custom widgets. They can also be used to “decorate” elements with behavior and manipulate DOM attributes in interesting ways.

Here is a simple example of a directive that listens for an event and updates its $scope, accordingly.

myModule.directive(‘myComponent’, function(mySharedService) {
return {
restrict: ‘E’,
controller: function($scope, $attrs, mySharedService) {
$scope.$on(‘handleBroadcast’, function() {
$scope.message = ‘Directive: ‘ + mySharedService.message;
});
},
replace: true,
template: ‘

};
});

Then, you can use this custom directive, like so.

Creating your application as a composition of discrete components makes it incredibly easy to add, update or delete functionality as needed.

we will discuss here about how to set up AngularJS library to be used in web application development. We will also briefly study the directory structure and its contents.

When you open the link¬†https://angularjs.org/, you will see there are two options to download AngularJS library –

AngularJS Download
View on GitHub – Click on this button to go to GitHub and get all of the latest scripts.

Download AngularJS 1 – Or click on this button, a screen as below would be seen –

AngularJS Download
This screen gives various options of using Angular JS as follows –

Downloading and hosting files locally

There are two different options legacy and latest. The names itself are self descriptive. legacy has version less than 1.2.x and latest has 1.5.x version.

We can also go with the minified, uncompressed or zipped version.

CDN access – You also have access to a CDN. The CDN will give you access around the world to regional data centers that in this case, Google host. This means using CDN moves the responsibility of hosting files from your own servers to a series of external ones. This also offers an advantage that if the visitor to your webpage has already downloaded a copy of AngularJS from the same CDN, it won’t have to be re-downloaded.

Try the new angularJS 2 – Click on this button to download Angular JS beta 2 version.This version is very fast, mobile supported and flexible compare to legacy and

latest of AngularJS 1

We are using the CDN versions of the library throughout this tutorial.

Example
Now let us write a simple example using AngularJS library. Let us create an HTML file myfirstexample.HTML as below –

Welcome {{helloTo.title}} to the world of Tutorialspoint!

Following sections describe the above code in detail –

Include AngularJS

We have included the AngularJS JavaScript file in the HTML page so we can use AngularJS –

If you want to update into latest version of Angular JS, use the following script source or else Check the latest version of AngularJS on their official website. Point to AngularJS app Next we tell what part of the HTML contains the AngularJS app. This done by adding the ng-app attribute to the root HTML element of the AngularJS app. You can either add it to HTML element or body element as shown below –

View
The view is this part –

Welcome {{helloTo.title}} to the world of Tutorialspoint!

ng-controller tells AngularJS what controller to use with this view. helloTo.title tells AngularJS to write the “model” value named helloTo.title to the HTML at this
location.

Controller
The controller part is –

This code registers a controller function named HelloController in the angular module named myapp. We will study more about modules and controllers in their respective chapters. The controller function is registered in angular via the angular.module(… ).controller(… ) function call.

The $scope parameter passed to the controller function is the model. The controller function adds a helloTo JavaScript object, and in that object it adds a title field.

Execution
Save the above code as myfirstexample.HTML and open it in any browser. You will see an output as below –

Welcome AngularJS to the world of Tutorialspoint!
When the page is loaded in the browser, following things happen –

HTML document is loaded into the browser, and evaluated by the browser. AngularJS JavaScript file is loaded, the angular global object is created. Next, JavaScript which registers controller functions is executed.

Next AngularJS scans through the HTML to look for AngularJS apps and views. Once view is located, it connects that view to the corresponding controller function.

Next, AngularJS executes the controller functions. It then renders the views with data from the model populated by the controller. The page is now ready.

Developing Awesome Mobile Apps

Test your product

Once you are done with an app, you shouldn’t launch it unless you have passed it through important tests. So, it’s a good idea to use a good tool for testing purpose.

Motivate your users

While it’s better for you to get motivated, make sure you motivate your users as well. What you need to do is find out what motivates them the most. This way you can have a solid base for making an awesome user experience with your apps.

Consider offline experience

Know that some apps offer great benefits even if the user is offline. For instance, popular apps like Evernote and WorkFlowy work great even without the access to the Internet.

The point is that this is the design practice that today’s developers should aim at. In other words, the applications should provide value even if the user doesn’t have access to the web.

Make it easy to use

Although 50% of citizens of the USA own mobile phones, know that not all of them know how to use their phones in the best way possible. Most of them are not expert users. So, what we want to say is that your app should be as easy to use as possible so that even a first time user could get the hang of it.

Make it quite simple

As soon as you have a design ready, make sure you have a family member or a friend use it. How did he feel while using it? What did they say about it? Did they find it easy to use? Make a note of what they say and follow it while making improvements to your product.

Consider both the platforms

The usage pattern of Android users is different from that of iPhone users. Be sure your design pattern suits the OS you are going to launch it on. One size may not fit everyone.

Use Grids

While designing, it’s a good idea to use a grid as it will help you keep things consistent throughout the process. As a matter of fact, grids are one of the most important concepts as far as making an app is concerned. This tool will help you maintain consistency and create something that will be stunning.

Emerging Technologies Among Java Developers

  1. 1) Unit Testing:
    In the event that you need to improve as an engineer, at that point you should take a shot at your unit testing aptitudes. What’s more, not simply unit testing, but rather robotized testing? This likewise incorporates combination testing. You can learn JUnit 5 and other propel unit testing libraries like Mockito, Power Mock, Cucumber, and Robot to take your unit testing expertise to next level. Mockito is extremely effective and enables you to compose a unit test for complex classes by taunting conditions and simply concentrating on the items under test. In the event that you an apprentice in unit testing and need to learn it, you should gear up and work harder to compete your rivals.
  2. 2) Big Data and Java EE 8:
    Big data has been a very trendy and encouraging field in the Software industry for the last 3 years. Plenty of jobs wait for the one who is comfortable with Big Data. This has been among top 10 technologies for the java developers. Many new features come with Java EE 8. Servlet 4.0 with support of http://2, new and improved JSON building and processing, improved CDI and Restful web services, new JSF version, new Java EE Security API are some of the updated versions in the field. But majority of back-end developers tend to pick Spring as their technology for java.
  3. Node JS:
    Today, we are pleased to have a platform that is built on the Chrome’s Java Script runtime known as Node.js. This has helped a great deal for easy building of the fast and scalable network applications in the dynamic world today. The code has the property of being lightweight as Node.js is based on an event-driven, non-blocking I/O model. This has emerged as recent trends in the technologies employed by the java developer. It is very efficient and is perfect for data intensive and Real Time (RT) applications that may run across any number of the distributed devices.
  4. Design Patterns and Readability of the Content:
    No doubt, design patterns are neither are a technology nor a framework, yet they are the field of discussion among the java developers. Even in the present scenario, readable, clean and maintainable code is the goal of many java developers and it has to be this way only.
  5. Angular and React:
    If want to be known as a full-stack developer, it is mandatory that you have considerable knowledge in front-end technologies too. For building an attractive and eye catching presentation layer of the web-app, Angular and React offer the opportunity to do this in a more convenient and time efficient manner. Though React and Angular are not the only options available nowadays, but still their growth and popularity is evident from the positive reviews given by the end consumers.

Choose a Great Antivirus for Device

Search for Online Reviews

Most reviewers are quite honest actually, that is, if you know where the look on the internet. PC Advisor and PC Mag are great for recommendations, because they usually have well-written, informative reviews about the latest software on the market. However, if you really want to compare specifications, prices, add-ons and more, you should definitely find a top 10 antivirus list online in order to narrow the search.

Of course, another option is to seek out some forums like Bleeping Computer and Tom’s Hardware so you could ask some members for advice. The best option is to combine the two – read some expert reviews first, and then the users about their opinion on the matter. Doing this, you will be able to know if a particular antivirus is underrated or overhyped.

Paid vs. Free

As you probably already know, there are two types of antiviruses – paid and free. The free software is, naturally, completely free of charge (however, some have premium editions and add-ons which can cost you) whereas paid software comes in an array of different packages and rates. Obviously, if you want the best across-the-board protection for your machine, you should pay for your software. Paid solutions usually have a wide range of protection features, and they won’t distract you with upgrade notifications every two minutes.

Nevertheless, if you have a small budget or you don’t want to spend a large sum of cash on a piece of software; don’t dismiss the free ones, because there are some fantastic solutions on the market that won’t cost you a penny. If you opt for a something free of charge, we recommend that you download either Avast Free Antivirus 2016 or BullGuard Internet Security, as both have top notch features comparable to paid software.

Look at the Features Closely

When it comes to choosing the safest software, perhaps the most important factor is how much protection it’s going to provide for your device. Even the majority of free antiviruses nowadays offer protection against such threats as fraud tools, backdoor and browser hijackers. Also, keep in mind that a big price doesn’t necessarily equate to first-rate protection and cost-free doesn’t necessarily mean flawed software either.

VPN security is one the many features offered by most of today’s antiviruses; this will come in handy if you regularly use unprotected WI-FI as it will protect your computer or mobile device from identity thieves and hackers. Many people who browse the Web and download content often find unwanted toolbars downloaded in the process; luckily, most software has “Browser Cleanup” tool that will keep everything unwanted from your browser.

Mobile App Branding

The purchasing journey has suffered so many changes lately and as we all know due to this hyper competitively, this branding noise around so many products has influenced marketers to reinvent all this. One of the most brilliant theories I have heard is that of the micro-moments which it seems to be mandatory in order to create stories that influence decisions, stories to be used throughout all the devices needed in your marketing strategies, this also includes channels, formats, etc.

So as we saw, approximately according to Google, 40% use smartphone daily as an average consuming day to satisfy their needs, therefore is easy to imply then that every day and more most of daily Google searches seems to happen more on smartphones than desktop PCs.

From a corporate perspective if the business development and innovation management is not well established then the tightening race in this hypercompetitive world of so many brands in the market will swallow your startup or new venture. Integrating this new customer value in due time into corporate level, same as competitive strategies and value management procedures is the most intelligent move we can do. Let’s all apply the Competence-Based Strategic Management (CBSM) framework, which was an approach started by Sanchez and Heene in the end of the 90’s and still useful for many startups.

As far as mobile apps innovation is moving on these days, we marketers recognize certain types of mobile app brands.

There are Mobile apps which main aims is to provide to end users a much smoother browsing experience. For example, Google Maps, Shazam, Foursquare will fit into this category.

Brands that have been consistent in the offline and have conquered certain level of positioning or defined their offline strategies move into the app world now and soon start delivering a successful user experience or performance experience to the users.

Point of Sale Software

MEET THE INCORRUPTIBLE CASHIER

So in 1879, Ritty invented the “Incorruptible Cashier,” a device that registered transactions made at his business. Some time after that, he patented his invention and sold it to salesman Jacob H. Eckert, who founded the National Manufacturing Company (NMC). Eckert later sold the company to John H. Patterson, a retail coal shop owner in Coalton, Ohio.

NCR TAKES THE REIGNS

Upon acquiring the business, Patterson renamed the company National Cash Register (NCR), which still exists today. He also added new features, such as custom employee drawers and bells, as well as the all-important paper receipts.

Electric and computerized point of sale systems arrive.

In 1906, inventor Charles F. Kettering, who worked for NCR, developed the first cash register powered by an electric motor. The device made it faster and easier for cashiers to ring up sales and keep tabs on transactions.

NCR RAMPS UP SALES AND DEVELOPMENT

Over the next several decades, more improvements were made to the cash register, and NCR came up with better ways to market and sell the device. These efforts paid off well for the company. By the mid-1900s, the cash register had become a staple in retail stores.

THE CASH REGISTER MEETS THE COMPUTER

In the 1970s, innovation helped traditional cash registers evolve into computerized point of sale systems. It was also during these years that devices such as credit card terminals and touchscreen displays were introduced.

By the time the 80s and 90s rolled along, the retail world saw the emergence of electronic registers, barcode scanners, PC-based point of sale systems, and credit card devices.

Point of sale systems go mobile.

Mobile point of sale (mPOS) solutions have made such a huge impact in the industry that in 2014 a majority of UK retailers (53%) rated mPOS as the most important in-store technology for consumers. mPOS systems are also gaining market share. In 2015, the IHL Group found that mobile POS software installs are up 41% in North America year to year.

FROM POS TO RETAIL MANAGEMENT

Over the years, we’ve seen POS systems evolve from cash registers that simply ring up sales to full-fledged retail management solutions that allow retailers to stay on top of inventory, reporting, customer management, and ecommerce from one platform.

SLEEKER AND MORE PORTABLE DEVICES

It’s not just features that have evolved. Thanks to the proliferation of mobile devices, retail point of sale solutions now look better than ever. Clunky registers and bulky computers are being replaced by sleek tablets and phones. These devices not only look good and save space, but they also help retailers improve the shopping experience.

Motherboard Basics

A motherboard, also known as a main board, is the primary circuit board inside of a computer, and is where the central processing unit (CPU), memory, expansion slots, drives, and other peripheral devices are connected. The circuitry on a motherboard facilitates the communication between all of the devices in the computer, making them as critical to a system’s performance as items such as the CPU or memory.

The core circuitry of a motherboard is referred to as its chipset, and generally the manufacturer of the motherboard is not the manufacturer of the chipset. Intel does produce motherboards with their own chipsets, but buying a motherboard brand such as Gigabyte, Biostar, and ASUS means getting a board with either a VIA, Nvidia, SIS, or Intel brand chipset.

Form Factor

The different basic shapes and sizes of motherboards are categorized as form factors. There are several standard form factors available, but some of the more common ones found in desktop computers include:
(http://www.formfactors.org/developer/specs/atx2_2.pdf), ATX (http://www.formfactors.org/developer/specs/matxspe1.2.pdf), Micro ATX (mATX) (http://www.formfactors.org/developer/specs/FlexATXaddn1_0.pdf) FlexATX (http://www.via.com.tw/en/initiatives/spearhead/mini-itx/) and Mini-ITX

The basic sizes of each are as follows:

* ATX: 12″ x 9.6″ (305mm x 244mm)

* Micro ATX: 9.6″ x 9.6″ (244mm x 244mm)

* FlexATX: 9.0″ x 7.5″ (229mm x 191mm)

* Mini ITX: 6.7″ x 6.7″ (170mm x 170mm)

ATX and mATX are by far the most popular motherboard sizes for desktop computers, and as seen in the list above, are also some of the largest. More real estate on a motherboard allows for greater expansion possibilities and extra features, which make the use of these boards more flexible. A Mini-ITX board may feature just one slot for memory and one slot for an expansion card, while a typical ATX board may feature 4 memory slots and six slots for expansion cards.

Each form factor has its own niche that it fits into, from workstations and gaming systems for larger boards to media centers and in-car computers for smaller boards. There is definitely overlap between the potential applications of each form factor, and other features and capabilities will also influence the targeted use.

CPU Socket

The major processor manufacturers, AMD and Intel, are constantly waging a battle to offer the fastest, most powerful processors available. Getting more speed and performance out of a relatively small chip generally requires a change to the physical dimensions as each new generation of processor is released. Therefore, motherboards need to evolve at the same pace in order to accept the new CPUs.

Back in the day, AMD and Intel processors shared a common CPU socket, but those days were short lived. AMD and Intel have since been traveling down their own, relatively parallel, paths of performance and speed increases, while using different designs. Selecting a motherboard for a modern AMD processor eliminates the use of any Intel processor, and vice versa.

AMD’s current offering for desktop processors includes the Athlon 64, which is available in Socket 939 and Socket 754 formats. The number in the names represents the number of pins present on the backside of the CPU that connect to the motherboard’s socket. The Socket 939 Athlon 64 therefore has a staggering array of nine hundred and thirty nine tiny pins to match up with the motherboard’s socket. The Chaintech VNF4 Ultra is an example of a Socket 939 motherboard based on Nvidia’s NForce4 Ultra chipset technology. In addition to these two sockets, many AMD processors, including Athlon XPs, Semprons, and Durons, share the Socket A format, also known as Socket 462 thanks to it having 462 pins for connecting to a motherboard.Socket adapters

Intel’s latest offering for their Pentium 4 and Celeron processors, LGA 775, doesn’t have pins at all and basically swaps the pins to the motherboard for the socket. Perhaps this design move puts the burden of bent pin warranty claims on someone else, but it is fairly unique. The Biostar P4M80-M7 is an example of an LGA 775 motherboard based on the VIA P4M800 chipset. Other Intel processors still on the market utilize the Socket 478 format for Pentium 4 and Celeron processors.

Although most motherboards support just one CPU socket, some applications benefit from having more than one processor to tackle the tasks at hand. Servers and high end workstations are two examples where a dual processor system, such as could be run on the Tyan Thunder i7500 motherboard, might make light work of more advanced applications.

Components

‘Components’ is a fairly vague term to describe this section, but the items to be covered are fairly diverse. Computer systems all use memory, storage devices, and power supplies, but among the many differences motherboards have is the type and quantity of connections for these components.

Most modern systems use DDR memory, but DDR-2 memory is becoming more common and will eventually become the standard. Although some boards provide slots for both types of memory, it is generally the case that either one or the other technology is supported. Besides operating differently, the physical difference of DDR having 184 pins and DDR-2 having 240 pins prevents them from being interchangeable. Going forward, users will have to decide whether they want to jump on the new technology bandwagon when selecting a motherboard, or to try to continue using their existing DDR for as long as possible. Regardless of technology, most motherboards come with 2 to 4 slots for memory, although as mentioned, Mini-ITX boards may just offer 1 slot.

Hard drive technology is changing too, as mentioned in the Tech Tip comparing SATA to ATA hard drives. Most motherboards over the past few years have offered two ATA connections, which could support up to 4 drives. With SATA becoming more popular, some boards now offer a mix of ATA and SATA connections, while others have abandoned ATA all together, and instead offer multiple SATA connections which only support one drive each. In addition to type and quantity, motherboards can also offer choices in hard drive capabilities by integrating RAID controllers onboard, as found on the ASUS K8V SE Deluxe.

As systems become more advanced, they many times impose special power requirements to keep them running smoothly. Most motherboards feature the typical 20 pin ATX power connector, while some server boards may have a 24 pin connection in its place. Motherboards for AMD Athlon 64 and Pentium 4 processors will have a second power connection located in close proximity to the CPU socket for providing the extra power that today’s high end processors demand. This special 4 pin connection isn’t found on every AMD Socket A motherboard, but it will most definitely be located on an AMD Socket 939 motherboard. Power supplies have been including this special connection for years, but for those upgrading an old system with a new motherboard, the power supply may be just one more item that has to be upgraded as well.

Extra Features

Many motherboards now include features onboard that were once only available as expansion cards to be purchased separately. A typical motherboard will now include stereo sound capabilities, a 10/100 LAN connection, and a few USB 2.0 ports on the back panel connection. Depending on the budget and needs of the end user, many motherboards may also include other convenient features such as integrated Firewire ports, VGA connections, and onboard RAID controllers.

Motherboards Extra Features

Although many of these items may be added later with expansion cards, if you know you want them upfront, a bit of installation hassle and expense can be eliminated by finding a board with just about everything you want included. That said, there aren’t many choices of onboard components, so it’s a case of take it or leave it. For example, you may want stereo sound included, but find most motherboards offer 5 channel, where you would prefer 8 channel. In that case, it may be a good thing that motherboards include expansion slots to add the sound card of your choice.

Expansion Slots

A motherboard typically provides at least one slot for the installation of a graphics card and a few slots for expanding the capabilities of the system in other areas.

Graphics cards are available in PCI, AGP, and now PCI Express formats, and matching a motherboard to the appropriate card is a key step. Most motherboards released over the past few years include an AGP slot,
and the new wave of motherboards are now starting to feature PCI Express slots for graphics card installation.

PCI slots are found on most motherboards, but are
much slower than AGP and PCI Express slots, so they are not the optimal choice for graphics. ATX motherboards may typically feature four to five PCI slots, and although they could be used for secondary display graphics cards, more common applications include sound cards, network cards, RAID controllers, TV tuners, modems, and USB/Firewire controllers. Considering that many of these items are now included onboard, having multiple PCI slots isn’t quite as important as it used to be.

Style

With enthusiasts adding windows and special lighting effects to just about every feature of a computer, why should the motherboard be left out of the action? Long gone are the days of the stereotypical green PCB with white connectors, and now most boards feature a vibrantly colored PCB and a rainbow of colors on expansion slots, memory slots, drive connectors, and so on.

For example, if someone was undecided on a mATX board for their Socket 754 AMD Athlon 64, style might be the deciding factor. The Chaintech MK8M800 and the Biostar K8VGA-M-N are similar boards featuring the VIA K8M800 chipset and prices under $70. The golden PCB with black and white features of the Chaintech board may appeal to some, while the red, white, blue, and yellow of the Biostar may sway others.

In general, a particular model is only available in one color scheme, and many manufacturers use the same theme across their entire current line up. As an example, the Biostar board for AMD Athlon 64 processors above features the same basic style as this Biostar board for the new Pentium LGA 775 processors. In addition to coloring, some manufacturers will include LED lighting on chipset cooling fans, or accessorize motherboards with matching cables to complete the unique looks of the board.

Ways to Remove Malware

Scanning

There are thousands and millions of different programs that are out there in the virus/spyware removal category. Also most of these programs are free which a good thing is. Different programs will give you different results and thus it depends on what exactly you wish to get from these programs. Hence the best thing that you can do when your computer is infected with multiple viruses is to run multiple programs. In order to get around this thing, you can either scan the system or you can enter the safe mode on your Windows system.

Rescue disks

In addition to entering the safe mode, you can also scan your computer before your Windows has a chance of getting booted up. This can be done by utilizing an offline virus scanner and sometimes a pre- boot scanner. The way that this works is that you will have to use another computer to properly download a file for ISO image from any anti- virus company.

Clean install

A clean install is not meant to be the most fun thing to do. However, it is a method that can guarantee you to get rid of all the viruses, malware as well as spyware. It is also pretty straight forward, when you are able to do a clean install. You will be able to delete everything on your hard disk and therefore there will not be any viruses. There will also be times, when a virus will not be able to infect items like text documents, pictures, MP3 files and videos. Here, a good thing to do is to scan all your personal data and even then if there are no viruses to be found, you can copy it to your external drive.